Example Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem this is certainly characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in children. It was first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was commonly known as hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it had been renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior towards the inattention as a characteristic that is major of disorder.

The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children generally have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. In the past few years the meaning of ADHD has broadened. Now, as well as school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which contributes to the prevalence that is rising.

The most typical hospital treatment for ADHD is with psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) along with other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in the last few years; in 2004 the Department of health insurance and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The treatment and diagnosis of ADHD is a lot higher in the us compared to other countries, but evidence shows that considering that the 1990s it is often rising far away as well, as an example, in the uk.

The sources of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In the past 2 decades, medical researchers have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and found differences in brain imaging results from people with ADHD and individuals without ADHD. The causes of ADHD are still largely unknown although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate. Some contend that even when you will find biological differences between children with ADHD and other children, what exactly is observed could be a reflection of variations in temperament in place of a disorder that is specific.

ADHD and its own treatment have now been controversial at the least since the 1970s.

Critics have expressed anxiety about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is simply a label for childhood behavior that is deviant. Others grant that some children could have a disorder that is neurological but maintain that there has been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Some educators and parents have raised concerns about adverse effects from long-term use of stimulant medications from time to time. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the most common childhood psychiatric disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as for example CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), have a tendency to support the perspective that is medical of.

Since the 1990s there has been a significant boost in the diagnosis and remedy for adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is usually school or parent identified, adult ADHD appears to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that numerous adults that are apparently successful an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment due to learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, after which seeing their particular life problems reflected in the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a significant problem that is social with claims of tens of vast amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income as a result of the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it is “the medicalization of underperformance.”

Sociologists view ADHD as a classic case associated with medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one additionally the remedy for ADHD as a kind of medical control that is social.

Whereas some have noticed that when a challenge becomes medicalized it is less stigmatized, because its origin is seen as physiological or biomedical rather than as linked to volitional behavior, others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing behavior that is deviant ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful kinds of medical social control (medications) to be utilized. Secondary gain, accruing social benefits from a diagnosis that is medical is also a concern with ADHD. There are reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to achieve learning disability status in order to get certain benefits, such as for instance untimed tests or alternative assignments. From a sociological view, this is of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an accepted diagnosis. For many individuals, ADHD is now deemed a disorder that is lifelong with an expanding age range for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a reduced threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. Although it is achievable that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing due to some kind of social cause, it really is much more likely that an escalating amount of people are now being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD essay writing.

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